Depressive symptoms are present in the depressive mood state of bipolar disorder BPD and major depression disorder MDD. This systematic and critical review aimed to find in literature reliable genetic biomarkers that may show differences between BPD and MDD. The articles were dated up to June Some studies applied more than one of these genetic analyses. To find reliable genetic biomarkers we have taken into account the methodological care during the studies development and their validity.
The genetic biomarkers selected are related to genes that play a fundamental role in synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, mood control, brain ageing, immune-inflammatory processes and mitochondrial respiratory chain.
BDNF gene expression was one of the genetic biomarkers that highlighted because of its capacity of distinguishing BPD and MDD groups, and being adequately reproduced by more than one selected study. Keywords: Bipolar; Depression; Diagnosis; Genetic biomarker. Publication types Research Support, Non-U.
Gov't Review.A bio-markeror biological marker is a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition. Biomarkers are often measured and evaluated to examine normal biological processespathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers used for medicine, or precision medicine, are a part of a relatively new clinical toolset. They are categorized in 3 primary ways according to their clinical applications. They are classified as molecular biomarkers, cellular biomarkers or imaging biomarkers.
All 3 types of biomarkers have a clinical role in narrowing or guiding treatment decisions and follow a sub-categorization of being either predictive, prognostic, or diagnostic. Predictive molecular, cellular, or imaging biomarkers that pass validation can serve as a method of predicting clinical outcomes. Predictive biomarkers are used to help optimize ideal treatments, and often indicate the likelihood of benefiting from a specific therapy.
For example, molecular biomarkers situated at the interface of pathology-specific molecular process architecture and drug mechanism of action promise capturing aspects allowing assessment of an individual treatment response.
For example, in metastatic colorectal cancer predictive biomarkers can serve as a way of evaluating and improving patient survival rates and in the individual case by case scenario, they can serve as a way of sparing patients from needless toxicity that arises from cancer treatment plans. Diagnostic biomarkers that meet a burden of proof can serve a role in narrowing down diagnosis.
This can lead to diagnosis that are significantly more specific to individual patients. A biomarker can be a traceable substance that is introduced into an organism as a means to examine organ function or other aspects of health.
It can also be a substance whose detection indicates a particular disease state, for example, the presence of an antibody may indicate an infection. One example of a commonly used biomarker in medicine is prostate-specific antigen PSA. This marker can be measured as a proxy of prostate size with rapid changes potentially indicating cancer.
The most extreme case would be to detect mutant proteins as cancer specific biomarkers through Selected reaction monitoring SRMsince mutant proteins can only come from an existing tumor, thus providing ultimately the best specificity for medical purposes.
Biomarkers for precision oncology are typically utilized in the molecular diagnostics of chronic myeloid leukemiacolonbreastand lung cancer, and in melanoma. A prognostic biomarker provides information about the patients overall outcome, regardless of therapy. Biomarkers for precision medicine are a part of a relatively new clinical toolset.
In the case of metastatic colorectal cancer mCRC only two predictive biomarkers have so far been identified and implemented clinically. The field of biomarker research is also expanding to include a combinatorial approach to identifying biomarkers from multi-omic sources. Combining groups of biomarkers from various omic data allows for the possibility of developing panels that evaluate treatment response based on many biomarkers at a single time.
One such area of expanding research in multi-omic biomarkers is mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA have been shown to correlate to risk, progression, and treatment response of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
This highlights the general snapshot capability of mitochondrial DNA-based biomarkers in capturing heterogeneity amongst individuals. The Early Detection Research Network EDNR compiled a list of seven criteria by which biomarkers can be assessed in order to streamline clinical validation.Sporadic colorectal cancer CRC is a somatic genetic disease in which pathogenesis is influenced by the local colonic environment and the patient's genetic background.
Consolidating the knowledge of genetic and epigenetic events that occur with initiation, progression, and metastasis of sporadic CRC has identified some biomarkers that might be utilized to predict behavior and prognosis beyond staging, and inform treatment approaches. Modern next-generation sequencing of sporadic CRCs has confirmed prior identified genetic alterations and has classified new alterations.
Each patient's CRC is genetically unique, propelled by driver gene alterations that have accumulated within the CRC since initiation. Components from these classifications are now used as diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment biomarkers. Additional common biomarkers may come from genome-wide association studies and microRNAs among other sources, as well as from the unique alteration profile of an individual CRC to apply a precision medicine approach to care.
Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Abstract Sporadic colorectal cancer CRC is a somatic genetic disease in which pathogenesis is influenced by the local colonic environment and the patient's genetic background.
Publication types Research Support, N. Gov't Review.In the fight against pancreatic cancer, clinical trials often provide the best treatment options. Callemail info pancan. In its latest guidelines for the treatment of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancerthe American Society of Clinical Oncology ASCO emphasized the importance of patients undergoing biomarker and genetic testing.
The sample can come from a surgical procedure or a biopsy. In addition to biomarker testing of tumor tissue, all patients with pancreatic cancer are recommended to get genetic testing for inherited mutations. Genetic testing is done through a blood or saliva sample, and it reveals mutations a patient was born with.
Studies have shown that the likelihood of finding an inherited mutation in a pancreatic cancer patient is similar whether or not the patient has a family history of cancer. This information is important for two reasons — for patients to know whether their family members might be at risk for pancreatic or other cancer types and because genetic changes can also impact treatment decisions.
The recent updates to the ASCO guidelines are consistent with the guidelines prepared by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network NCCNwhich also encourages biomarker and genetic testing for all pancreatic cancer patients. A Warrior for Warriors. How Common Is Pancreatic Cancer? No one should face pancreatic cancer alone. Learn how we can support you. Mon — Fri, 7 a. PT You can also contact us using the below form. Get the latest news and updates from the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network.
Facing Pancreatic Cancer?Understanding genetic abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia CLL helps inform prognosis and patient care. However, other biomarkers—such as del 11q and unmutated IGHV —occur more frequently in the CLL population and are also associated with poor outcomes. Some other common chromosomal aberrations—such as del 13q and trisomy 12—are associated with either a favorable or neutral prognosis.
Links to expert panel guidelines, patient education materials, and more. References: 1. Ig V gene mutation status and CD38 expression as novel prognostic indicators in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Unmutated Ig VH genes are associated with a more aggressive form of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
All rights reserved. Accessed December 20, To view the most recent and complete version of the guideline, go online to NCCN. Comprehensive assessment of genetic and molecular features predicting outcome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results from the US intergroup phase III trial E J Clin Oncol. Abstract Genomic aberrations and survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Resources Links to expert panel guidelines, patient education materials, and more. Share this page.Providing authoritative, peer-reviewed research on the development of new genetic testing technologies and the ethical, legal, social, and economic issues associated with genetic testing.
Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers is the leading peer-reviewed journal covering all aspects of human genetic testing including molecular biomarkers. The Journal provides a forum for the development of new technology; the application of testing to decision making in an increasingly varied set of clinical situations; ethical, legal, social, and economic aspects of genetic testing; and issues concerning effective genetic counseling. This is the definitive resource for researchers, clinicians, and scientists who develop, perform, and interpret genetic tests and their results.
View the entire editorial board. Audience: Researchers, clinicians, and scientists involved in genetic testing, medical geneticists, and genetic counselors, among others. The Official Journal of:. Genetic Alliance. Clinical OMICs. DNA and Cell Biology. Human Gene Therapy.
Journal of Women's Health.Using Genetic Biomarkers for Selection of Targeted Cancer Therapies: PGx Conference 2018
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Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers coverage includes: Diagnosis across the life span Risk assessment Carrier detection in individuals, couples, and populations Novel methods and new instrumentation for genetic testing Results of molecular, biochemical, and cytogenetic testing Genetic counseling Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers is under the editorial leadership of Editor-in-Chief Garth D.
The views, opinions, findings, conclusions and recommendations set forth in any Journal article are solely those of the authors of those articles and do not necessarily reflect the views, policy or position of the Journal, its Publisher, its editorial staff or any affiliated Societies and should not be attributed to any of them. Society Affiliations The Official Journal of:. Recommended Publications.It may not seem obvious at first, but the understanding of cancer biomarkers is key to developing a treatment plan that is right for you.
Biomarkers are molecules that indicate normal or abnormal process taking place in your body and may be a sign of an underlying condition or disease. Various types of molecules, such as DNA genesproteins or hormones, can serve as biomarkers, since they all indicate something about your health.
What Are Biomarkers?
Biomarkers may be produced by the cancer tissue itself or by other cells in the body in response to cancer. They can be found in the blood, stool, urine, tumor tissue, or other tissues or bodily fluids.
Notably, biomarkers are not limited to cancer. There are biomarkers for heart disease, multiple sclerosis, and many other diseases. Learning some basic facts about DNA, RNA and proteins is helpful for understanding the importance of biomarkers in cancer.
DNA, which stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule inside the cell that carries genetic information and passes it on from one generation to the next. Body cells make several different types of RNA molecules that are necessary for the synthesis of protein molecules. Proteins help the body function properly and are the basis of body structures such as skin and hair.
They have a wide range of functions inside the human body. Certain proteins speed up chemical reactions enzymesothers affect the functioning of the immune system cytokinesand yet others, known as antibodies, trigger specific immune responses in response to antigens — harmful substances that the body periodically has to overcome. In recent years, scientists have started to look at patterns of gene expression and changes in DNA as cancer biomarkers.
There are many types of cancer biomarkers, and they each work differently within the body and react differently to treatments. In general, cancer biomarkers are classified by their different functions:.
New Guidelines Emphasize Biomarker & Genetic Testing
An example of this type of biomarker is the HER2 protein, which helps to control cell growth. This condition can possibly cause the cells to grow more quickly and increase their chances of metastasizing spreading to other parts of the body. SPARC helps bring albumin — a type of protein found in blood, egg whites, milk, and other substances — into cells. Therefore, an overexpression of SPARC helps treatments bound with albumin work more effectively by bringing the treatment right into the cell.
Some chemotherapeutic drugs are made with platinum to disrupt tumor DNA. Even within the above biomarker categories, there is variety. But all cancers do have biomarkers, including genetic biomarkers.